The dating of the Chu graves of Changsha - Figures
Figure 1. Two ceramic ding-cauldrons from Chu graves
excavated in Changsha (Changsha 1957: 30). The scale
Figure 2. Three ceramic li-cauldrons from Chu graves
excavated in Changsha (Changsha 1957: 35). Dimensions not
indicated; probably about 20 cm high.
Figure 3. Four ceramic bo-howls from Chu graves excavated in
Changsha (Changsha 1957: 33). The scale shows cm.
Figure 4. Iron artefacts which, in the view of Huang Zhanyue (1976:
67), are among the earliest found in China. The scale shows cm.
1. Scraper-blade from grave no. 52.826 at Longdongpo in Changsha, Hunan (Gu
2. Scraper-blade from grave no. 12 at Deshan in Changde, Hunan (Yang Hua
3. Spade-cap from grave no. 314 at Shiziling n Changsha, Hunan (Changsha
4. Lump of cast iron from grave no. 1 at Chengqiao in Luhe, Jiangsu (Wang
Zunguo et al. 1965).
5. Bar of wrought iron from grave no. 2 at Chengqiao (KG 1974.2: 116ff).
Figure 5. Histograms showing the distribution of values of L/W
(ratio of bottom length to bottom width) in four groups of Chu graves excavated
in Changsha (derived from Changsha 1957: 169-170). The vertical scale
indicates the number of graves in the given interval; for example in group 1.1
there are two graves with 3.30 <= L/W < 3.50.
For comparison a normal distribution curve with the same mean, standard
deviation, and integral is shown superimposed on each histogram.
Group 1.2 requires two notes. (1) The report lists 32 graves in this group, but
for one of these (no. 309) no dimensions are given. (2) The one grave in this
group with a very high L/W value (no. 338) has severely tapering walls; it has
bottom dimensions 2.44 x 0.60 m and mouth dimensions 2.60 x 1.00 m. If the
mouth dimensions had been used here L/W would have been 2.60, which fits much
better into the distribution. In the calculation of the mean and standard
deviation all 31 graves were included, but the normal distribution curve given
for comparison is based on the data for only 30 graves, excluding no. 338 (mean
L/W = 2.31, standard deviation = 0.36).
Figure 6. Map showing all the modern place-names mentioned in the
Figure 7. Summary of relative chronology for ceramic artefacts
excavated in the Chu cemetery at Yutaishan in Jiangling. Hubei. (Reproduced
from Jiangling 1984: 130-133.) Rows, top to bottom: periods 6 to
1. Columns, left to right: 1: li-cauldron; 2:
bo-bowl, here called yu-bowl; 3: guan-jar; 4:
long-necked hu-vase; 5: ding-cauldron, series
1; 6: fu-dish; 7: hu-vase, series 1; 8: ding-cauldron, series 2; 9. dui-bowl; 10: hu-vase. series
2; 11: fang-vase; 12: he-bowl. Columns 1-4 are
"articles of daily use", while the rest are ceramic imitations of bronze ritual
Figure 8. Histograms showing distribution of L/W for the bottom
dimensions of 506 graves excavated at Yutaishan in Jiangling, Hubei. (Based on
data given in Jiangling 1984: 150-190.) Bottom dimensions are not given
for 52 of the total of 558 graves, and these are not included here.